Several villages are located in the northern part of the island of Seram is Kanike, Roho, Huaulu and Solea. People living in this area to be isolated because there is no infrastructure available . Critical infrastructure such as transportation, communications , lighting (electricity), health, clean water and other services can not be enjoyed by the public, while the only educational facility at the elementary level .

The area is remote because many raging rivers that have passed, the streets are steep, up and down the valley and mountains. Slope where more than 60 % led to a trip to the villages more difficult . This is why people are very difficult to access other necessities and sale of the crop does not occur smoothly. People must wait traders who come to the village to buy the yield crop, and if they have to go outside the village then all the household needs to be spent on supplies.

Communities living side by side and are very dependent on nature. They collect forest produce to meet the needs of everyday life . Businesses in agriculture but also carried over subsistence is not just a commercial character to be consumed alone. There are some people who are still cutting down forests to clear land for agriculture. It occurs because the system is still very traditional agricultural and undeveloped.

Once farmland is planted with several times its production declined,  then they find and open new land for cultivation. But there are certain sacred places that should not be cut or touched and entered. They believe that these places exist ghost or believe that their ancestors inhabited the place. This is what makes these places remain safe and sustainable.

Besides hunting or trapping for wildlife that can be used as a source of protein still remain to be done . When the results are excessive they can preserve (pickle) for sale supplement the family income . Some use air guns to look for game animals such as birds of the forest , and other kus - kus . These results into daily consumption by the public.

Poaching activities sometimes meet the challenges associated with the presence of animals that are protected by law . Especially those areas adjacent to National Parks Manusela even villages are rural village enclave is located in the conservation area .

Means of communication and information has not been felt by the community . To capitalize on their night lighting lamp light with kerosene or fuel traditionally drawn from nature . Availability of means of transport , means of communication and limited lighting is causing isolated communities to undertake a range of activities , especially regarding trade transactions between neighboring villages .

This community works in the field of agriculture as the main livelihood. Cultivated area of ​​2-3 ha, with plants that are cultivated food crops and crops such as bananas, taro, sweet potato, cassava and peanuts, while also seeking vegetable crops . Yields of food crops and vegetables only for consumption by the farmer and his family, and if there is a new more shall be sold.

Results from the sale of these plants are used to purchase other necessities. In addition to food crops and vegetables, they also seek plantation crops and fruits such as coconut, cloves, cocoa, durian, and Cempedak complexioned. Yields of these crops are usually sold the main income for the household .
In regard to the use of natural resources (both biological and vegetable), culture "SASI" as a cultural norm for generations, are still preserved / maintained by the community. Implementation of SASI system is generally carried out by traditional institutions and religious institutions. SASI is basically the implementation of the ban to take certain natural resources in an effort to maintain the quality and preservation of natural resources is population .

This prohibition also about human relationships with the natural setting , or with areas that imposed the ban. Thus, SASI is an attempt to maintain decorum (social institutions) community life , including the equitable distribution of effort over natural resources for the population in rural areas .
SASI system implementation is generally applied to forest resources , plantation crops , such as coconuts and cloves , and water ( Shrimp , Fish , Eels and others ) . If there are people who violate SASI will be penalized by a fine of State Saniri . SASI addition , there is also the term " Kewang " in the traditional structures that serve to preserve the forest . If there is breaking the rules set by Kewang then no sanctions or penalties provided by Kewang through Saniri State as decision makers .

Public perception of the environment is the very life depends on the availability of natural resources. Community life of the environment, so the environment must be protected and preserved . A wide range of biological resources derived from nature that can be properly managed to fulfill all the needs in a sustainable manner .


Sago (Metroxylon sp) growing areas inundated or flooded periodically. It's life in marshy areas, also called swamp forest. Sago is a non timber forest products since the first was used as a source of food. In Maluku, Sago grows by itself in swamp forests, growing in low-lying areas behind the mangrove forest .

According to Flach and Schuiling (1991) Nutritional contained (g) in the sago trunk is N = 590, P = 170, K = 1700, Ca = 860 and Mg = 350. At the time of processing on the field a lot disappeared and nutrients back into the soil where they are grown .

How big is the sago palm tree ? Can be seen in the picture below .

This is a sago tree found in Piru village, West Seram regency. In this area there are sago trees are not utilized, up to an old abandoned and dead.

There is the largest sago trees that can be seen, when we travel to the Eti Village, West Seram regency. Maluku Province .. Height of approximately 10 m and diameter of 250 cm.

If this sago to be extracted, how many tons starch that can be produced? .

But.....when viewed closely it can be seen that it is not real but the sago tree is simply a church tower that resemble sago tree.

Besides Tree Sago, Eti Village also has a Aren tree population (Arenga pinnata) are abundant.

Let come to the Eti Village and Calculate how much Arenga pinnata tree and the Sago there. The people who live there earn by making alcoholic beverages from Arenga pinnata tree.

NATURE TOURISM OF MARSEGU ISLAND ::: VAMPIR ISLAND | West Seram regency | Maluku province

Nature in Marsegu Island has its own uniqueness. Marsegu island located in the western part of the island of Seram (Nusa Ina / Mother Island) are known to have Manusela National Park. Marsegu islands are included in the Administrative District of West Seram, Maluku Province .

The island was given the name by local communities as "Marsegu Island" due to its animal bats in large numbers. Marsegu word comes from the local language means "bat". In mind that will inevitably have such a creepy character of "Dracula" blood-sucking, man who becomes a bat. But the island is not creepy even a variety of beauty can be found there, as a place of recreation and a place to develop science.

Bat ( Pteropus vampirus )

Crab ( Birgus latro )

Besides Bats can be found also protected animals such as Gosong birds / maleo (Megaphodius reinwardtii) and Coconut Crab (Birgus latro) or a regional language called "Kepiting Kenari". There are many other birds that make this island as a habitat for eating, playing and sleeping .

Marsegu island or bats island are protected forest areas established by the Decree of the Minister of Forestry Number : 10327/Kpts-II/2002 , dated December 30, 2002 , the extent of 240.20 Ha. Marine area is a Marine Nature Park 10,000 hectares established by Decree No. Menhutbun. 114/Kpts-II/1999, dated March 5, 1999.

Potential of marine natural resources are large enough, colorful coral reefs can be seen beauty. Various shades of sea life reef fish of diverse sizes and shapes.

Coral Reef Marine Natural Park Marsegu Island and surrounding areas

For who like seafood can enjoy on this island. Going fishing alone or can also buy from people around the island's livelihood comes from the sea.

Reef Fish

Half of the island is The mangrove forest area with mangrove species, such as Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata, Brugueira gymnorrhiza, Brugueira sexangula, Ceriops tagal,  Xylocarpus mollucensis, Xylocarpus granatum, Heritiera littoralis, Lumnitzera littorea, Aegiceras corniculatum, Excoecaria agallocha, Pemphis acidula and Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea.

Rhizophora mucronata

Outermost zone of the mangrove area is then mixed with Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora apiculata and the middle is Brugueira gymnorrhiza, Brugueira sexangula, Ceriops tagal, Xylocarpus mollucensis and Xylocarpus granatum.

Zone of Brugueira and Ceriops sp 

In the eastern part of the island there Marsegu coastal forest vegetation that has white sand beaches along the 1600 meters. Types of vegetation found in this zone is Cordia subcordata, Pongamia pinnata, Terminalia catappa and Baringtonia asiatica. In the northern part there is a white sand beach Ipomea pescaprae zone dominated by wind grass (Spinifex littoreus) and Katang - katang (Ipomea pescaprae). This location is an attractive tourist place to enjoy the ocean views and breathe fresh coastal air.

White Sand Beach

Spinifex littoreus

For those who want to camp or stay a few days on this island, there are 2 (two) wells as a source of fresh water that is usually also used by local communities for drinking, bathing and washing .

Accessibility to Marsegu island of Ambon city as the provincial capital can be reached via the route :
+ Ambon - Hunimua . ( Land line )
+ Hunimua - Waipirit ( Ceram ) using the ferry ( 1.5 hours )
+ Waipirit - Piru - Pelita Jaya . ( Land line ± 56 km )
+ Pelita Jaya - Marsegu Island . ( Sea Line ± 5 km )


Tropical forests in Indonesia can be divided based on the climate as follows:

1. Tropical Rain Forests
Tropical rain forests are forests which obtain high rainfall, often we are familiar with the term pamah forest. Forest types can be found in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua North Section. The types that are commonly found in this forest, namely: Meranti (Shorea and Parashorea), Keruing (Dipterocarpus), Kapur (Dryobalanops), ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri), ebony (Diospyros sp).

2. Wet Monsoon forests
Wet monsoon forest is a forest that is generally found in Central Java and East Java, the period of the dry season of 4-6 months. Rainfall experienced in one year 1,250 mm to 2,000 mm. The types of trees that grow in these forests include teak, mahogany, rosewood, and kelampis Pilang.

3. Dry Monsoon Forests

Dry monsoon forests located at the eastern end of Java, Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa. This forest type is at a location that has a dry season ranged from 6-8 months. Rainfall in a year is less than 1,250 mm. Types of trees that grow in the woods such as teak and eucalyptus.

4. Savana forest
Savanna forest is a forest overgrown shrubs groups grassland interspersed with thorny plants. Of the dry season 4-6 months with rainfall less than 1,000 mm per year. The species typically grows in the woods of the Family Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae. This forest type common in the Flores, Sumba and Timor.



Tropical forests are spread in the tropics between 23.27 ° N  and 23.27 °S and found three regions in the world that has a tropical rainforest that is:
  • American rain forest with an area of ​​400 million ha ,
  • Indo - Malayan rain forest with an area of ​​250 million ha and
  • African rain forest with an area of ​​180 million ha .

Characteristic of tropical rain forest can be described as follows :

a. High biodiversity

Species composition of tropical rain forest is very diverse , in 1 ha can be found 100 plant species . Of the many new types of existing small portion recognized and known benefits . This diversity does not just happen in flora but fauna is also diverse constituent . Ecosystems that have a high diversity will have a stable ecosystem stability .

b . Closed Nutrient cycles

Tropical rainforest look so majestic with large trees and a small diverse . But actually these forests grow in less fertile soil , most of the nutrients stored in the vegetation . If there is damage to forests by logging and then transported a result, the majority of the nutrients will be lost from the forest .

c . Micro Climate conditions are stable

Climatic conditions in the different forest beyond. This is because iklilm forming factors ( eg ; wind , temperature , precipitation , light , etc. ) is affected by the compilers of the forest vegetation . As long as there is still forest vegetation will form the climatic conditions in the forest are relatively stable (relatively small fluctuations)

d . Niche specific high

The existence of the types making up the tropical rain forest , flora and fauna can live well if they exist in the ecosystem. For example, a type of orchid can grow well with other woods constituent . If the plant is moved to another place, even if the environment is made to resemble a tropical rainforest environment but the conditions will be different .

e . High productivity

Tropical rain forest ecosystem productivity is higher when compared to other ecosystems such as agricultural land, grasslands, forests, and other life . This happens because the ability to use energy efficiently supported by the amount of water and sufficient light .

NATURAL FOREST : Trees grow naturally since the old times

Meaning of natural forests are overgrown with forest trees naturally and has existed since long ago. Natural forests can survive without human intervention or the exploitation of forest called "Primary forests". In Primary forests hasn't found  human intervention inside or natural disasters factors also can form secondary natural forest.

Indonesia has very wide natural forests, but the day this forest area continues to decrease. Some even say that Indonesia lost 1.6 to 2 million hectares of natural forests each year. Indonesia's natural forests are generally covered by dipterocarp species, which is a type of wood demand in the market, so it's natural forests are subjected to exploitation.

Species composition of natural forests in Indonesia vary depending on the location where the growth of the forest. The types of trees in natural forests in western Indonesia is different from eastern Indonesia, although there are species that spread from west to east. There are several natural forest vegetation zone in Indonesia, namely the western zone of natural forest, the eastern zone and the transition zone or the middle.

ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE : Because of Poverty Society :

Development given a positive impact on economic improvement but behind all there are a number of issues related to the environment . If the development is done only concern on economic factors, the notice of environmental factors will be forgotten . Though environmental problems not only affect the current but the impact to the children and grandchildren .

Third world countries and developing always spur economic growth in order to quickly achieve the welfare of its people . They still pay attention to how to provide basic necessities for their people , such as food and so on. But developed countries have to think far into the future will no longer be bothered with these problems , because the economy is getting better . They think that a better future with a healthy environment and bequeath to our children and grandchildren .

Many environmental damage caused by human  that occurs due to the demands of life and lack of knowledge about the environment itself. Underdeveloped and developing countries have a Human Development Index ( HDI ) which is low when compared to developed countries . With limited education and daily needs are urged to make poor people trying to survive without any crossed his mind about environmental sustainability . Moreover, if the poor that live near the forest , the forest will be subjected to exploitation which causes damage to the forest . Poverty is one of the causes of environmental damage, but there are many more other factors .

Factors differing views and needs is what makes environmental damage is more common in developing countries . Even developing countries and least developed targeted dumping industrial wastes from developed countries . Examples of environmental damage such as pollution that occurs with varying intensity , both of which are non-toxic waste disposal toxic waste up to very dangerous .

Understanding of the environmental damage is the impact of human actions that cause direct or indirect alteration of the physical, chemical and / or biological environment that exceeds the criteria of environmental quality standards .

Various kinds of environmental damage can occur in the environment around us . This is evidenced by environmental degradation due to environmental pollution such as air pollution , soil pollution and water pollution . In addition to the environmental damage includes damage to land and marine ecosystems that provide environmental health impacts .

While understanding and definition of environmental pollution is entered or the inclusion of living things , matter, energy , and / or other components into the environment by human activities that exceed the environmental quality standards that have been set .

So that environmental damage does not happen then it needs to be made more severe damage control or the control of environmental pollution . This effort is the prevention and control as well as the restoration of environmental damage associated with air pollution , water pollution and soil contamination .

Prevention of environmental damage is an attempt to maintain a healthy environment in ways that do not provide opportunities ongoing environmental damage associated with air pollution , water pollution and soil pollution including land and forest fires . Prevention of environmental damage is an attempt to stop the widespread and increasing environmental damage and impacts related to air pollution , water pollution and soil contamination .

Popular Posts